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  A term from science fiction used by Donna Haraway (1985) in her famous paper \'Manifesto for cyborgs: science, technology and socialist-feminism in the 1980s\'. Haraway was looking for a metaphor that could redefine the potentialities of both embodiment and technology by relating each to the other in more positive way and, for her, \'cyborg\' signalled some of the \'ways that the things many feminists have feared most can and must be refigured and put back to work for life not death\' (Haraway, 1991, p. 4; see feminist geography).

The term has since moved into fairly general circulation in fields of research like the study of gender and sexuality, and of technological cultures, as a means of imagining new subject positions which hint at new modes of living together with others (see body, geography and; subject formation, geographies of). (NJT)

References Downey, G., Dumit, J., eds, 1997: Cyborgs and citadels: anthropological interventions in emerging sciences and technologies. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press. Gray, C. H., ed., 1995: The cyborg handbook. New York, Routledge. Haraway, D. 1985: Manifesto for cyborgs: science, technology, and socialist-feminism in the 1980s. Socialist Review 80: 65-108 (reprinted in Haraway, 1991 as \'A Cyborg manifesto: science, technology and socialist feminism in the late twentieth century\'). Haraway, D.J. 1991. Simians, cyborgs and women. The re-invention of nature. London: Free Association Books. Haraway, D. 1997: Modest-Witness@second-millennium. FemaleMan©Meets_Onco-Mouse TM: Feminism and Technoscience. New York: Routledge.

Suggested Reading Pile, S. and Thrift, N.J., eds, 1995: Mapping the subject. Geographies of cultural transformation. London: Routledge.



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