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  The difference between the estimated and actual value for an observation on the dependent variable in a regression equation: a positive residual is where the observed value exceeds that estimated for it; a negative value is where the estimate is larger. The largest residuals indicate where the estimating equation has relatively failed and Haggett (1965) suggested that advances in geographical research can be achieved by mapping residual values to inaugurate a search for new causal variables. Maps of residuals are used to test whether spatial autocorrelation is present. (RJJ)

Reference and Suggested Reading Haggett, P. 1965: Locational analysis in human geography. London: Edward Arnold. Johnston, R.J. 1978: Multivariate statistical analysis in geography: a primer on the general linear model. London and New York: Longman.



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