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replacement rates

  Measures of the extent to which a given population is replacing itself. Natural increase, the simple balance of births over deaths, is too strongly influenced by age structures to give a real measure of replacement of generations (see age and sex structure). Three single-number indicators are frequently used instead: the total fertility rate, the gross reproduction rate and the net reproduction rate (see fertility). The last of these (NRR) is most used. Devised by R.R. Kuczynski (1935), it measures the average number of daughters produced by a woman during her reproductive life-time, taking into account mortality. If the NRR is less than 1 then the population will ultimately decline; if it equals 1 then the population is stationary. (PEO)

Reference Kuczynski, R.R. 1935: The measurement of population growth: methods and results. London: Sidgwick and Jackson; New York: Oxford University Press.

Suggested Reading Woods, R.I. 1979: Population analysis in geography. London and New York: Longman, ch. 5.



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