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  A process that reuses the materials and energy components of an item to create another product. It is often seen as the third level of environmental action after reducing consumption and reusing an existing item. Recycling may reduce waste and reduce the need for raw materials in production processes. It may be either \'horizontal\' (e.g. aluminium cans into aluminium cans) or it may be \'vertical\' (e.g. bond paper to lesser-quality newspaper). Recycling was widely used during the two World Wars, but not for environmental reasons. Although contemporary recycling may be undertaken solely for economic reasons (if recycled materials cost less than raw ones), it is usually represented as an action of environmental concern. (PM)  



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Other Terms : industrial district | focus group | gross national product (GNP)
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