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producer services

  Services which are supplied to businesses and governments, rather than directly to individual (or \'end\') consumers (cf. consumer services). Such services, often characterized as those which provide \'intermediate\' inputs into the process of production, include economic activities as diverse as financial services, research and development, computer services, marketing and advertising, and certain kinds of transport and communication. Producer services have economically important consequences and often quite distinctive geographies because: (i) there needs to be no spatial coincidence between the demand for these services and their supply; and (ii) they are often only partially dependent upon the level of economic activity in a city or region. The study of these geographies has become an increasing visible part of economic geography. As clusters of interconnected activity, they are also increasingly regarded as an important determinant in the formation of regional policy. (See also services, geography of; money and finance, geography of; consumption, geography of.) (NJT)

References Daniels, P.W., ed., 1991: Services and metropolitan development: international perspectives. London: Routledge. Daniels, P.W. 1993: Service industries in the world economy. Oxford: Blackwell. Daniels, P.W. and Lever, W., eds, 1996: The global economy in transition. Harlow: Longman. Marshall, J.N. and Wood, P.A. 1995: Services and space: key aspects of urban and regional development. Harlow: Longman.



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