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  A small part of a state, separated from its main territorial unit and surrounded by the land of a neighbour, such as the area of Spain around Llivia on the French side of the Pyrenees. There are several variations on this basic form. Pene-exclaves are part of the state which, although not physically separate, can only be reached conveniently via another country. Quasi-exclaves are areas that for all practical purposes have ceased to be treated as exclaves. Virtual exclaves are the reverse, areas that enjoy the status of an exclave without the legal entitlement. Finally, temporary exclaves result from inconclusive territorial arrangements being made after an armistice (see also enclave). (MB)

Suggested Reading Robinson, G.W.S. 1959: Exclaves. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49: 283-95.



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