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  A term first employed by Goodman, Sorj and Wilkinson (1987) in relation to the forms in which agriculture is industrialized. Agriculture is a natural production process that cannot be directly transformed into a branch of industrial production. The industrialization of agriculture confronts its natural characteristics in the form of the biological conversion of energy, biological time in plant growth and the rigidities of space in land-based activities (see agrarian question; substitutionism). Within these constraints which are defined by technological change, discrete elements of the production process in agriculture are taken over by industry (for example the horse by the tractor, organic manure by synthetic alternatives). The persistent but discontinuous undermining of discrete operations and elements of the agricultural production process, their transformation into industrial activities, and their reincorporation into agriculture as inputs is designated by Goodman, Sorj and Wilkinson (1987, p. 2) as appropriationism. (MW)

References Goodman, D., Sorj, B. and Wilkinson, J. 1987: From farming to biotechnology. Oxford: Blackwell .



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